Glufosinate Ammonium- An Overview

The report presents information related to the regulation, use, toxicity, and adverse effects of the herbicide glufosinate ammonium on health and environment. Glufosinate is a broad-spectrum herbicide acknowledged to have adverse effects on nervous system, reproductive system, cardiovascular system, and on developing fetuses in animals. Glufosinate ammonium does not have known antidotes, making it difficult for saving lives of individuals who are poisoned. It is banned in 29 countries.

Deemed to be Registered Pesticides in India

This report addresses lacunae and problems of the so called deemed to be to be registered pesticides in India. Pesticides used in India before the formal ‘registration process’ started following the Insecticides Act 1968 are considered as ‘Deemed to be registered’. These pesticides thus did not undergo the mandatory scientific scrutiny process for evaluating their efficacy and safety, and most of them are continue to be used in the country. Many of them are highly hazardous pesticides and subject to international regulatory frameworks. The new ‘Pesticide Management Bill 2020’ favours the provision for ‘deemed to be registered’ that will allow 62 pesticides (except those banned if any) to continue to be in use. This report suggests that as mounting volume of literature is available on pesticide toxicity, no pesticides should be allowed to be used without scientific scrutiny of need, efficacy, health risk and environmental safety.

State Of Chlorpyrifos, Fipronil, Atrazine And Paraquat Dichloride In India

New report reveals dangerous situation of pesticide usage in India and points to poor regulation of hazardous agrochemicals. The current use pattern is implicated in widespread unauthorised uses of chlorpyrifos, fipronil, atrazine and paraquat in India, posing threat to food safety and environmental contamination. While these four pesticides are approved for use in India for specific crop-pest combinations, the study uncovered numerous unapproved uses in food and non-food crops. Chlorpyrifos is approved for 18 crops in India, while this study found its use in 23 crops. Fipronil is approved for nine crops and field use was recorded for 27 crops. Similarly, atrazine and paraquat dichloride are approved for one and 11 crops respectively, field uses have been noted in 19 and 23 crops respectively. Of serious concern is that the study uncovered agriculture departments/universities and pesticide industry recommending unapproved uses. These high numbers of non-approved uses pose serious questions on the safety of agricultural produce and environmental contamination. The Maximum Residue Level (MRL) for agriculture produce is monitored based approved uses and therefore, non-approved uses are largely remain unmonitored for MRLs which is a serious food safety concern domestically, as well as it pose treat to international trade of agriculture commodities.

Fact Finding Report:- Mysterious Disease outbreak in Eluru, Andhra Pradesh: Unnamed and Under-investigated

Eluru witnessed hundreds of people hospitalised in a couple days in early December, 2020. Further, in January, 2021, reports of similar cases came in from village nearby, including Pulla, Komirepalli and Bhimadole. With only one death, and the disappearance of the symptoms, neglect of possible chronic issues in the victims and possible recurrence in general is apparent. There is unconfirmed news that isolated incidences of similar illness were happening for a long time in this Eluru town. If true, this could mean that the occurrence of this ‘mystery’ disease is no longer limited to December, 2020. Reports of the institutions that have conducted the investigations are not available in the public domain. AIIMS has not named a pesticide. NIN study concludes that is acute organophosphate poisoning. However, there is no information on how this pesticide reached the human bodies. The route of contamination has not been discussed or mentioned. No further steps seem to be in the offing by the government in Eluru to identify the pathways of contamination and steps to prevent further contamination. Pesticide Action Network India decided to do a fact finding visit to the problem area and ascertain facts. APVVU became an ally in this endeavour. This report is based on a field visit and a workshop organised with the victims where preliminary findings were shared with them.

Toxic Blooms: Impacts of Pesticides on Children in the Floriculture Industry in Tamil Nadu, India | 2020

This report reveals the use of Highly Hazardous Pesticides (HHPs) in floriculture farms in Tamil Nadu, affecting children who work in these farms. Health symptoms of poisoning experienced by children, aged 9 to 13, include headaches, skin rashes, vomiting, fatigue, sleeplessness, tremors, dizziness, fever, and body pain. One-third of all children respondents reported becoming ill weekly.

Out of the total 109 pesticides brands identified by the children, farmers, and shop retailers, 82% contained HHPs. Out of the 44 HHPs identified in the study, 32 are already banned in one or more countries. Many of these pesticides have been proven to be highly toxic to bees, fatal if inhaled, likely carcinogenic, reproductive toxicants, endocrine disruptors, and very persistent in water and soil. Nine pesticides have been identified as particularly toxic to children: cypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos, paraquat, glyphosate, dichlorvos, mancozeb, and permethrin. Paraquat and chlorpyrifos are restricted and not authorised by the Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee for use in flowers, yet were discovered to be used in floriculture farms where children work.

State of Glyphosate Use in India | 2020

This report reveals the ground reality of glyphosate use in India based on field survey in seven Indian States. This study presents the fact that glyphosate use is happening in India violating the national regulations as well as the International Code of Conduct on Pesticides Management.
An order issued by the West Bengal Agriculture Department in 2019, quoting the Secretary of Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, Government of India states that glyphosate formulations are ‘registered to be used in Tea Plantation Crop and non plantation area accompanying the Tea crop and any use beyond this is illegal and in violation of the insecticides Act, 1968 and Rules, 1971’. Ironically, this field study has noted at least 20 non-approved uses with 16 of them in food crops.
In the light of mounting evidences on the unacceptable health and environmental outcomes of glyphosate, the ground reality of its use in India is seen as an ‘anarchic’ scenario.  This would have undesirable impacts on soil health, farm productivity, food safety, agriculture trade, public health, as well as environmental wellbeing in the country. The scenario of glyphosate use thus necessitates the urgent need of eliminating it from India.

Of Rights and Poisons: Accountability of the Agrochemical Industry | 2018

This report by PAN Asia Pacific and its partners highlights results of seven-country study on the impact of highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) on people’s health and the environment. The report found that the agrochemical transnational corporations (TNCs), their subsidiaries as well as local pesticide manufacturers and distributors are producing and distributing HHPs that cause acute and chronic health effects particularly to children and other vulnerable people. These pesticides are also known to cause environmental damage and loss of biodiversity.

The results of the study were generated through PANAP’s Community Pesticide Action Monitoring (CPAM) as well as fact-finding missions. CPAM is a participatory action research approach to document and create awareness on pesticide impacts on human health and the environment. It involves community members who undertake the research, and encourages organizing and action

Pesticide Poisonings in Yavatmal District in Maharashtra: Untold Realities | 2017

Pesticide Action Network (PAN India)  released its assessment report on the unfortunate incident of deaths and poisoings of small scale farmers and farm workers happened in Yavathmal due to inhalational and contact exposures to pesticides. This report shows ground reality of multitude of issues related to cotton farming right from seed to pesticide application practices, farming and working conditions, lack of proper access to information, etc. that have brought in the pathetic situation. The ground reality shows that national laws and International code of conduct on pesticide management among others are  grossly violated in Yavatmal.

Inhalational poisoning cases reach their peak during August and September. An analysis revealed that between July 6th and October 11th, 2017, 450 cases of inhalational poisonings due to exposure to pesticides are reported (by the time we prepare the report, more cases have come in). A junior doctor in the hospital said nausea, vomiting, head ache, sweating, restlessness, loose motions, fasciculation (muscle twitch), respiratory distress, pupil constriction, shivering, etc., were commonly noted among the pesticide poisoning cases.


This report presents kind of practices being pursued in selling paraquat dichloride, a toxic chemical, in India. Data collected from the State of West Bengal shows that practices are casual and basic, violating Indian national laws as well as the International Code of Conduct on Pesticides Management.

Illegal practices illustrated in the report reveal gross failure of the Indian pesticide regulatory system to rein in sellers and buyers. In a scenario of lax regulatory system and totally ignorant users, this report recommends immediate ban on the production, import, sale and use of paraquat dichloride in India, and adoption of non-chemical methods of weed management and agroecology.

A life without dignity – the price of your cup of tea: Abuses and violations in tea plantations in India | 2016

This report is the outcome of a fact finding mission conducted in the aforementioned regions on behalf of the Global Network for the Right to Food and Nutrition (GNRTFN). PAN India was part of the fact finding mission. It investigates and analyses allegations of serious abuses of human rights on India’s tea plantations, in particular how poor working conditions undermine the human right to food and nutrition and related rights.

In sharp contrast to the images of tranquil, lush, green tea gardens, with which consumers are presented, tea plantation workers are paid poverty wages and endure appalling working conditions. Women, who make up 70% of the workforce, are especially affected.

As one of the world’s leading producers and exporters of tea, India’s tea industry employs more than 1,2 million people. Two regions, Assam and West Bengal, together produce over 70% of India’s tea and are also home to the worst working conditions for tea plantation workers in the country.

“Replacing Chemicals with Biology: Phasing out highly hazardous pesticides with agroecology” | 2015

This book was originally launched by PAN International on 29th September at the 4th International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM4) held in Geneva during 28th September and 2nd October 2015.  The resolution acknowledges that HHPs causes severe adverse effects on human health and the environment.  The ICCM4 has recognized highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) as an "issue of concern".  The conference in its resolution, supported concerted action to address HHPs and welcomed a strategy to address them that has been developed by UNEP, FAO and WHO.

Successful cases of agroecological farming in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Europe and USA, presented in the book, substantiating the long-standing claim that ecological principles applied to agriculture are effective tools in the management of pests, including weeds, and provide sustainable livelihoods to farmers and rural communities. The case studies show that agroecological farming can improve food security and strengthen food sovereignty, while providing better adaptation to climate change and reducing harmful environmental impacts.

Conditions of Paraquat use in India | 2015

This report shows that the herbicide paraquat is widely used under high–risk conditions in India. The report finds that rules and recommendations for paraquat use are often ignored, that users don’t have the required information, nor do they have the means to protect themselves from exposure. All of this violates the International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management.
The victims are farmers and workers who are suffering from numerous adverse health effects caused by paraquat. The report’s publishers are therefore calling for paraquat to be included on a list (under the Rotterdam Convention) which allows governments much more control over its importation. Such a listing, say the publishers, would support developing countries to make an informed decision on allowing or not the importation of paraquat.